“To ask if there’s a question between human drug resistance and livestock antibiotic use is like asking if there’s human-induced climate change, or if there’s a link between smoking and lung cancer. There are a few dissenting industry scientists on one side, but then basically every other scientist on the other. Both opposing camps have scientists on their side, but only one really has science on their side. One can just look at who’s on the sides of this debate. In one corner, you have the World Health Organization, the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Public Health Association, and another 100 medical and public health organizations in the country. On the other side, you have the National Turkey Federation, the National Chicken Council, the Sheep Industry Association, the National Pork Producers. It could not be more stark…”
Subsidies and financial assistance are given for drugs approved under the Standard Drug List (SDL) and Medication Assistance Fund (MAF). Drugs approved under the SDL and MAF must be registered with the Health Sciences Authority (HSA) and assessed to be clinically- and cost-effective. MAF drugs are generally newer and more expensive, and therefore MAF applies only when these drugs are used for suitable clinical indications so that MAF drugs are appropriately used. In exceptional cases, MAF can also support HSA-registered drugs that are not on the SDL or MAF list, on a case-by-case basis.
Androgens are responsible for the growth spurt of adolescence and for the eventual termination of linear growth, which is brought about by fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers. In children, exogenous androgens accelerate linear growth rates but may cause a disproportionate advancement in bone maturation. Use over long periods may result in fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers and termination of growth process. Androgens have been reported to stimulate the production of red blood cells by enhancing the production of erythropoeitic stimulating factor. During exogenous administration of androgens,Â endogenous testosterone Â release is inhibited through feedback inhibition of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH).