Significance: The significance of the proposed clinical trial and importance of the research question must be clearly stated. It is particularly important that there be a discussion of how the trial will test the proposed hypotheses and why there is clinical equipoise. The application should make clear the need for and timeliness of the study with emphasis on how the results will address an evidence gap and therefore advance our knowledge of theory and practice in this area. Include a description of how results will impact clinical care to improve health. A discussion of the costs and benefits of the study should be included for evaluation of the trial's significance.